Journal Publications

Adams RJ, Sleeman M, Rwego I, New JC. 2001. Self reported medical history survey of humans as a measure of health risk to the chimpanzees (Pan troglyodytes schweenfurthii) of Kibale national Park. Oryx 35(4): 308-312.

Ali R, Cranfield M, Gaffikin L, Mudakikwa T, Ngeruka L, Whittier C. 2004. Occupational health and gorilla conservation in Rwanda. International Journal of Occupational and Environental Health. 10(3):319-25

Blasier MW, Travis DA. 2005. Retrospective evaluation of measles antibody titers in vaccinated captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Journal of Zoo Wildlife Medicine. 2005 36(2);198-203

Byarugaba DK, Gitta SP, Nizeyi JB, Graczyk TK, Cranfield MR. 1994. Antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria isolates from mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) of Bwindi Impenetrable Forest National Park, Uganda Publishing

Byers AC, Hastings B. 1991. Mountain gorilla mortality in the Parc National des Volcans, Ruhengeri Prefecture, Rwanda, 1988. Possible contributing climatic factors. Mt. Res. Dev. 11: 145-151.

Cooper JE. 1996. Protocol for collection and examination of faecal samples from the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei). African Primates 2: 24-25.

Cranfield M, Gaffikin L, Kalema-Zikusoka G, Karesh W, Lonsdorf E, Mlegeya T, Mudakikwa T, Nutter F, Pinter R, Reed T, Rwego I, Ssebide B, Tack D, Travis D. 2005. Consensus document outlining some practical considerations for protecting African great apes and conservation employees through an occupational health program. http://www.wcs-ahead.org/documents/EHPConsensus0205.pdf

Cranfield MR, Minnis R, 2007. An Integrated Health Approach to the Conservation of Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). International Zoo Yb., 41:1-12.

Cranfield MR, The Decision Tree Writing Group. 2006. Clinical response decision tree for the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) as a model for great apes. American Journal Primatology. 68(9):909-927

Cranfield MR. 2008. Mountain gorilla research: the risk of disease transmission relative to the benefit from the perspective of ecosystem health. American Journal Primatology. 70(8):751-4.

Eberle R. 1994. Evidence for an alpha-Herpesvirus indigenous to mountain gorillas. Journal of Medical Primatology. 21: 246-251.

Foster JW. 1992. Mountain gorilla conservation: a study in human values. Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association. 1;200(5):629-33.

Frey JC, Rothman JM, Pell AN, Nizeyi JB, Cranfield MR, Angert ER. 2006. Fecal bacterial diversity in a wild gorilla. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 72(5):3788-92.

Gaffikin L, Cranfield M, Tack D, Whittier C, Nutter F. 2004. Risk of disease transmission between conservation personnel and the mountain gorillas: results from an employee health program in Rwanda. EcoHealth 1:351-361.

Garner KJ, Ryder OA. 1996. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in gorillas. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 6: 39-48.

Graczyk TK, DaSilva AJ, Cranfield MR, Nizeyi JB, Kalema GR, Pieniazek NJ. 2001. Cryptosporidium parvum genotype 2 infections in free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) of the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Parasitology Research. 87(5):368-70

Graczyk TK, Mudakikwa AB, Cranfield MR, and Eilenberger U. 2001. Hyperkeratotic mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei (Acariformes; Sarcoptidae) in juvenile human-habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Parasitology Research. 87: 1024-1028.

Graczyk TK, DaSilva AJ, Cranfield MR, Nizeyi JB, Kalema GRNN, and Pieniazek NJ. 2000. Cryptosporidium parvum Genotype 2 infections in free ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla berengei) of the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Parasitology Research. 86

Graczyk TK, Fayer R, Cranfield MR. 1997. Zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum: Implications for water-borne cryptosporidiosis. Parasitology Today. Sep;13(9):348-51

Graczyk TK, Lowenstine LJ, Cranfield MR. 1999. Capillaria hepatica (Nematoda) infections in human-habituated Mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) of the Parc National de Volcans, Rwanda. Journal of Parasitology 85(6): 1168-1170.

Graczyk TK, Nizeyi JB, DaSilva AJ, Moura INS, Pieniazek NJ, Cranfield MR, and Linquist HDA. 2002. A single genotype of Encephalitozoon intestinalis infects free-ranging gorillas and people sharing their habitats, Uganda. Parasitology Research. 88: 926-931.

Graczyk TK, Nizeyi JB, Ssebide B, Thompson RCA, Read C, Cranfield MR. 2002. Anthropozoonotic Giardia duodenalis Genotype (Assemblage) Infections in habitats of free-ranging human-habituated gorillas, Uganda. Journal of Parasitology. 88(5): 905-909.

Gustavo P, Lowenstine LJ Cranfield MR, Gilardi KV, Spelman L, Lukasik-Braum M, Kinani JF, Mudakikwa A, Nyirakaragire E, Bussetti AV, Savji N, Hutchison S, Egholm M, Lipkin WI 2011. Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas, Rwanda. Dispatch. Volume 17, Number 4–April.

Hanamura S, Kiyono M, Lukasik-Braum M, Mlengeya T, Fujimoto M, Nakamura M, Nishida T. 2007. Chimpanzee deaths at Mahale caused by a flu-like disease. Primates. 2008 49(1):77-80. Epub Aug 25.

Hastings BE. October 1988. Impressions on the remote injection of free-ranging mountain gorillas.

Hastings BE. 1991. The veterinary management of a laryngeal air sac infection in a free-ranging mountain gorilla. Journal of Medical Primatology. 20(7):361-4.

Hope K, Goldsmith ML, Graczyk T. 2004. Parasitic health of olive baboons in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Veterinary Parasitology. 21;122(2):165-70.

Iyanya JB, Kambale ES, Sibwomu B, Whittier CA, Nutter FB. 2006. Prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in livestock in proximity to mountain gorillas in the Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of Primatology. Volume 27, supplement 1:122.

J.B. Nizeyi, N. Czekala, S.L. Monfort, N. Taha, M. Cranfield, P. Linda and K. Gilardi. 2011. Detecting Adreno-Cortical Activity in Gorillas: A Comparison of Faecal Glucocorticoid Measures Using RIA Versus EIA. International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 3(2): 103-115. ISSN: 2041-2908. © Maxwell Scientific Organization

Kalema-Zikusoka G, Lowenstine L. 2001. Rectal prolapse in a free-ranging mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei): clinical presentation and surgical management. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 32(4):509-13.

Kalema-Zikusoka GR, Kock A, Macfie EJ. 2002. Scabies in free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Veterinary Record. Jan 5;150(1):12-5.

Kenneth Cameron, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Mike Cranfield, Maryke Gray, Laurie A. Harris, Josephine Head, Kathryn Jeffery, Sascha Knauf, Felix Lankester, Siv Aina J. Leendertz, Elizabeth Lonsdorf, Lawrence Mugisha, Andreas Nitsche, Patricia Reed, Martha Robbins, Dominic A. Travis, Zinta Zommers, Fabian H. Leendertz, and Bernhard Ehlers. 2011. Novel adenoviruses in wild primates: a high level of genetic diversity and evidence of zoonotic transmissions. Journal of Virology, Oct., p. 10774–10784, vol. 85, no. 20

Krief1 S, Escalante A, Pacheco MA, Mugisha L, Andre´ C, Halbwax M, Fischer A, Krief JM, Kasenene JM, Cranfield M, Cornejo OE, Chavatte JM, Lin C, Franck Letourneur F, Anne Charlotte Gruner AC, McCutchan TF, Re´nia L, Snounou G. 2010. On the Diversity of Malaria Parasites in African Apes and the Origin of Plasmodium falciparum from Bonobos. PLoS Pathogens. Volume 6 | Issue 2 | e1000765

Lukasik-Braum M, Spelman L. 2008. Chimpanzee respiratory disease and visitation rules at Mahale and Gombe National Parks in Tanzania. American Journal of Primatology. 70(8):734-7

Makanga S, Bwangamoi O, Nizeyi JB, Cranfield M, Dranzoa C. 2004. Parasites found in rodents in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology. 42:78-81.

Milligan LA, Rapoport SI, Cranfield MR, Dittus W, Glander KE, Oftedal OT, Power ML, Whittier CA, Bazinet RP. 2008. Fatty acid composition of wild anthropoid primate milks. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Moleculary Biology. 149(1):74-82.

Mugisha L, Bwangamoi-Okot, Cranfield MR, Graczyk TK, Dranzoa C, Gaffikin L. 2010. Cross-transmission of gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan parasites between habituated chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) with humans in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. African Journal of Animal and Biomedical Science, 5(3), ISSN: 1819-4214

Nizeyi JB, Cranfield MR, Graczyk TK, 2002. Cattle near the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis for local community and free-ranging gorillas. Parasitology Research (2002) 88:380-385.

Nizeyi JB, Innocent RB, Erume J, Kalema GRNN, Cranfield MR, Graczyk TK. 2001. Campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, and shigellosis infections in free-ranging human-habituated mountain gorillas of Uganda. Journal of Wildlife Disease. 37(2): 239-244.

Nizeyi JB, Innocent RB, Erume J., Kalema GRNN., Cranfield MR, Graczyk TK. 2000. Campylobacter, Salmonella and Shigella infections in free-ranging human-habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) of the Bwindi and Mgahinga National Parks. Journal of Wildlife Disease. 37(2): 239-244.

Nizeyi JB, Mbabazi R, Cranfield MR, Byarugaba DD, Ssebide B, Gilardi K, Mugisha L. 2010. Tourist willingness to update vaccination status as a prerequisite for visiting free-ranging habituated great apes in Uganda. African Journal of Animal and Biomedical Science, 5(3):66-78.

Nizeyi JB, Monfort SL, Taha NM, Cranfield M, Gilardi K. 2011. Non-invasive sampling strategy for monitoring free-ranging Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla berengi berengi) fecal corticoid excretion in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, South-Western Uganda. International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 3(2): 93-102 © Maxwell Scientific Organization ISSN: 2041-2908

Nizeyi JB, Mwebe R, Nanteza A, Cranfield MR, Kalema GR, Graczyk TK. 1999. Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. infections in mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) of the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Journal of Parasitology. 85(6):1084-88

Nizeyi JB, Sebunya D, DaSilva AJ, Cranfield MR, Pieniazek NJ, Graczyk TK, 2002. Cryptosporidiosis in people sharing habitats with free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 66(4):442-444.

Nizeyi, J.B., Nabambejja, S., Mugisha, L., Majalija, S. and Cranfield, R.M. 2012. Risk assessment of human behaviours that may impact the health of the Mountain Gorillas around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Western Uganda. African Journal of Animal and Biomedical Science. 7(1), 2012. ISSN: 1819-4214

No Authors Listed. 1993. Macfie continues in mountain gorilla conservation. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association. 202(4):509.

No Authors Listed. 1991. Veterinarian sharpens skills working with endangered mountain gorillas.Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association. Mar 15; 198(6):946-8.

Nolan RS. 2006. Gorilla conservation project takes “one-health” approach, benefits extend beyond endangered apes.Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association. Vol 229. No. 10/News.

Reed, David L, Jessica E Light, Julie M Allen and Jeremy J Kirchman. 2007. Pair of lice lost or parasites regained: the evolutionary history of anthropoid primate lice. BMC Biology, 5:7 doi:10.1186/1741-7007-5-7 This article is available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/5/7

Robbins MM, Gray M, Fawcett KA, Nutter FB, Uwingeli P, Mburanumwe I, Kagoda E, Basabose A, Stoinski TS, Cranfield MR, Byamukama J, Spelman LH, Robbins AM. 2011. Extreme conservation leads to recovery of the Virunga mountain gorillas. PLoS One. 6(6):e19788. Epub 2011 Jun 8.

Rooney MB, Sleeman J. 1998. Effects of selected behavioral enrichment devices on behavior of Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science.;1(4):339-51

Schmidt DA, Ellersieck MR, Cranfield MR, Karesh WB. 2006. Cholesterol values in free-ranging gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei) and Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 37(3):292-300.

Schneider BJ. 1995. Morris Animal Foundation supports mountain gorillas. Canadian Veterinary Journal. 36(9):532.

Sherwood CC, Cranfield MR, Mehlman PT, Lilly AA, Garbe JA, Whittier CA, Nutter FB, Rein TR, Bruner HJ, Holloway RL, Tang CY, Naidich TP, Delman BN, Steklis HD, Erwin JM, Hof PR. 2004. Brain structure variation in great apes, with attention to the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei). American Journal of Primatology. 63(3):149-64.

Sleeman JM, Cameron K, Mudakikwa AB, Nizeyi JB, Anderson S, Cooper JE, Richardson HM, Macfie EJ, Hastings B, Foster JW. 2000. Field anesthesia of free-living mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) from the Virunga Volcano region, Central Africa. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 31(1):9-14.

Sleeman JM, Meader LL, Mudakikwa AB, Foster JW, Patton S. 2000. Gastrointestinal parasites of mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 31(3):322-8.

Sleeman JM, Mudakikwa AB. 1998. Analysis of urine from free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) for normal physiologic values. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 29(4):432-434

Smiley T, Spelman L, Lukasik-Braum M, Mukherjee J, Kaufman G, Akiyoshi D, Cranfield M. 2010. Noninvasive saliva collection techniques for free-ranging mountain gorillas and captive eastern gorillas.Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 41(2):201-209

Wevers, Diana, Sonja Metzger, Fred Babweteera, Marc Bieberbach, Christophe Boesch,Whittier CA, Cranfield MR, Stoskopf MK. 2010. Real-time detection of Campylobacter Spp. in free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 46(3):791-902.

Whittier CA, Horne W, Slenning B, Loomis M, Stoskopf MK. 2004. Comparison of storage methods for reverse-transcriptase PCR amplification of rotavirus RNA from gorilla (Gorilla g. gorilla) fecal samples. Journal of Virological Methods. 1;116(1):11-7.

Whittier CA, Milligan LA, Nutter FB, Cranfield MR, Power ML. 2010. Proximate Composition of Milk From Free-Ranging Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), Zoo Biology 29:1–10

Whittier, Christopher A, Felicia B. Nutter, Michael R. Cranfield, Michael K. Stoskopf. Seroprevalence of selected infectious agents in free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). American Journal of Primatology, submitted

Whittier, Christopher A., Milligan, Lauren A., Nutter, Felicia B., Cranfield, Michael R., and Power, Michael L. 2011. Proximate composition of milk from free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) Zoo Biology 30:308–317

Whittier, Christopher; Nutter, Felicia; Cranfield, Michael, Stoskopf, Michael. Seroprevalence of infectious agents in captive primates and local humans in the Virunga region of East-Central Africa. American Journal of Primatology, submitted

ABSTRACTS

Childs S. Eastern Gorilla Rehabilitation and Reintroduction Project. PASA Meeting Kigali 2007.

Cooper JE. Gorillas in the midst of war: challenges to conservation in Central Africa. The Salim Ali Memorial Lecture. Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. 1996

Cranfield M, Kalema-Zikusoka G., Integrated health approach to gorilla conservation. International Primatology Society Meeting Entebbe 2006.

Cranfield M.R. Standardized health monitoring system for the mountain gorilla (gorilla beringei beringei.) Diseases – the third major threat for wild Great Apes? Leipzig, Germany 2004

Cranfield MR, Gaffikin L, Whittier C, Nutter F, Minnis R, Lowenstine L. One-health approach to conservation. The Mountain Gorilla Project. Proceedings of American College of Veterinary Pathologists, Boston, Massachusetts: 240-241, 2005

Cranfield MR, Kalema ZG. Integrated health approach to gorilla conservation. International Journal of Primatology, Volume 27, supplement 1:119, 2006.

Cranfield MR. Risk/benefit of behavior modification of the mountain gorilla (gorilla beringei beringei), a conservation tool or detriment. ABBA 2006

Cranfield MR. and MGVP, Inc. Writing Group. Integrated health approach to gorilla conservation. Proceedings of the Wildlife Disease Association. Storrs, Connecticut:7, 2006.

Cranfield MR. History of MGVP. Kisoro Strategic Planning Workshop. October 2005

Cranfield, M. R. Conservation medicine activities of the mountain gorilla veterinary program. American Society of Primatologists. Georgia. August 2001.

Cranfield, M. R., F. Nutter, and C. Whittier. Occupational health programs for primate fieldworkers. International Joint Conference, Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine and Wildlife Disease Association, Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa. July 2001.

David Gardner-Roberts, , Linda J. Lowenstine, Lucy Spelman. An outbreak of stomatitis in a group of orphan eastern gorillas (gorilla beringei spp.) in an interim quarantine facility, Rwanda. BVZS 2010

Eilenberger U. Factors influencing the parasite status of gorilla subspecies (gorilla beringei graueri, gorilla beringei beringei, Gorilla gorilla gorilla): a plea for a multidisciplinary approach in conservation medicine. Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians/International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine joint conference, New Orleans, September 2000

Eriksen, A.B. , Nawrocki S.P. , Mcfarlin S.C. Bromage T.G. , Fawcett K. , Cranfield M.R. , Mudakikwa A. Evidence of perimortem trauma in free-ranging mountain gorillas (gorilla beringei beringei) from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. AAPA 2010

Foster, J.W. A health management plan for the mountain gorilla (abstract). Proc. Joint Cong. AAZV and AAWV: 106. 1988

Foster, J.W. Economic considerations in mountain gorilla conservation. Proc. AAZV, Pp. 87-91. 1992

Gaffikin, L. Reducing potential disease threats to mountain gorillas by improving human health: an example from MGVP in Rwanda. IPS 2005

Gardner-Robert D, Gaffikin L, Spelman L. The Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project (MGVP Inc.) Employee Health Programme (EHP) – Part of a Conservation Medicine Approach to Maintaining the Health of Eastern Gorillas (Gorilla beringei spp.) British Veterinary Zoological Society Annual Meeting 2007.

Gardner-Roberts D, Lowenstine LJ, Spelman L. Outbreak of Stomatitis in a group of orphan Eastern Gorillas in an Interim Quarantine Facility. British Veterinary Zoological Society Annual Meeting 2007.

Gardner-Roberts D. a herpes virus outbreak in a group of Mountain and Eastern lowland orphan gorillas. European Zoo Vet Association Conference. 2007

Gardner-Roberts D. Vet management of the Eastern Gorilla Interim Quarantine Center. PASA Meeting Kigali 2007.

Gardner-Roberts, David, Lynne Gaffikin, Lucy Spelman. The Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project (MGVP Inc.) Employee Health Programme (EHP) – Part of a conservation medicine approach to maintaining the health of eastern gorillas (gorilla beringei spp.) BVZS 2010

Giita, S.P, Nizeyi J.B, Byaruhanga D, Cranfield M, Rwego I. Antibiotic resistance of selected enteric bacteria isolates from mountain gorillas, domestic ruminants & humans in a shared environment of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, South-Western Uganda. Diseases – the third major threat for wild Great Apes? Leipzig, Germany 2004

Hastings, B, M. Condiotti, C. Sholley, D. Kenney, and J. Foster. Clinical signs of disease in wild mountain gorillas (abstract). Proc. Joint Conf. AAZV and AAWV: 107. 1998

Hastings, B.E., David Kenny, L. J. Lowenstine, and J. W. Foster. Mountain gorillas and measles: ontogeny of a wildlife vaccination program. Proc. AAAZV: 198-205. 1991

Hastings, B.E., L. M. Gibbons, and J. E. William. Parasites of free-living mountain gorillas: survey and epidemiological factors (abstract). Proc. AAZV: 301-302. 1992

Iyanya JB, Kambale ES, Whittier CA, Nutter FB, Cranfield MR. Prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in livestock in proximity to mountain gorillas in Democratic Republic of Congo. International Primatology Society Meeting Entebbe 2006.

Kinani, JF. The Mountain Gorilla Project. Rwandan Biodiversity Conference 2007.

Lowenstine, L.J. Long-distance pathology, or – will a mountain gorilla fit in the diplomatic pouch? Proc. AAZV: 178. 1990

Lowenstine, Linda J., Christopher A. Whittier, Jennifer Luff, Felicia. Nutter Innocent Rwego, Mike Cranfield. Largecell anaplastic b-cell lymphoma and other causes of mortality in golden monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis kandti) from the Virunga Volcanoes. ACVP 2008

Luff JA, Lowenstine LJ, Whittier CA, Iyanya J. Malignancy in a free-ranging Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei), first Carcinoid tumor described in a gorilla. American Association of Zoological Veterinarians 2007.

Luff, Jennifer A., Linda J. Lowenstine, , Christopher A. Whittier, Jacques. Iyanya, MacFie, E.J. An update on current medical management program for Rwanda’s mountain gorillas: Veterinarians as population managers, and the effects of war. Proc. AAZV/AAWV: 45-47. 1992

Maryke Gray, Katie Fawcett, Augustin Basabose, Mike Cranfield, Linda Vigilant, Justin Roy, Prosper Uwingeli, Innocent Mburanumwe, Edwin Kagoda and Martha M. Robbins, Meaders, L.L., J. M. Sleeman, A. B. Mudakikwa, and S. Patton. The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in gorillas in the Virunga Mountains, Rwanda (abstract). Proc. Southeastern Soc. Parasitol. 1997.

Minnis R, Cranfield M. The use of a syndromic health monitoring system to provide the prevalence of clinical entities in the mountain gorilla. Ecohealth Conference, Madison Wisconsin 2006

Minnis RB, Cranfield MR, Ssebide B, Rwego I, Whittier CA, Travis D, Nutter F, Gaffikin L. Nizeyi John Bosco, Taha N M, Monfort S.L, Czekala N, Cranfield M. Adrenal Gland Response Of Three Individuals In Mubale Mountain Gorilla Family To Specific Stressors In Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, South-Western Uganda. Abstract for the conference on Diseases – the third major threat for wild Great Apes? Leipzig, Germany 2004

Noheri, Jean Bosco. A study on prevalence of gastro intestinal nematodosis within cattle around the Virunga Vational Vark (VNP) case study: cows distributed by one cow per one poor family program. OCPPFP 2009

Nutter FB, Whittier CA, Cranfield MR, Lowenstine LJ. Causes of death for mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei and Gorilla beringei undecided) from 1968-2004. Proceedings of the 54th Annual Wildlife Disease Association Conference. Abstract. 2005.

Nutter FB, Whittier CA, Lowenstine LJ, Cranfield MR. Mange caused by pangorillalges gorillae (Fain 1962) in three Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Proceedings of the 54th Annual Wildlife Disease Association Conference. Abstract. 2005.

Nutter FB, Whittier CA, Lowenstine LJ. Cleft palate in a neonatal Virunga mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei). Proceedings of the 54th Annual Wildlife Disease Association Conference. Abstract. 2005. Proceedings of the Wildlife Disease Association. Storrs, Connecticut:62, 2006.

Routh, A., and J. M. Sleeman. June,. A preliminary survey of syndactyly in the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei). British Veterinary Zoological Society Meeting. 1997.

Schmidt DA, Ellersieck MR, Cranfield MR, Karesh WR. Cholesterol concentrations in free-ranging gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei) and bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Omaha, Nebraska:9, 2005.

Sherwood, Chet, Michael R. Cranfield, Patrick T. Mehlman, Alicia A. Lilly, Jode Garbe, Linda J. Lowenstine, Thomas R. Rein, Ralph L. Holloway, Cheuk Y. Tang, Joseph M. Erwin, Chris Whittier, Felicia Nuuter And Patrick R. Hof. Comparative brain anatomy of the mountain gorilla (gorilla gorilla beringei). ASP 2003

Sleeman, J.M., A. B. Mudakikwa, and J. W. Foster. October,. Human activities affecting the health of the mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference of the Wildlife Diseases Association, Wroclaw, Poland. 1996

Spelman, L.H. and MGVP Veterinary Staff. Orphaned Mountain Gorillas: Now There are Four. Proceedings, AAZV Annual Conference, Los Angeles, CA, October 2008.

Ssebide BJ. The use of IMPACT system in gorilla health monitoring. International Primatology Society Meeting Entebbe 2006.

Ssebide, B.J., J.B. Nizeyi, M. Ocaido, M. R. Cranfield, L.Gaffikin. Health Monitoring through Daily Clinical Observations of Habituated Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Uganda. IPS 2008

Ssebide, Benard Jasper. Strengthening wildlife surveillance and laboratory diagnostic capacity in Uganda: a major tool for epidemic preparedness and response. ICOPHAI 2011

Virunga Massif Mountain Gorilla Census. 2010 Summary Report

Whittier C, Cranfield M, Tack D, Nutter F. Employee health program to promote worker and Mountain Gorilla well being; lessons learned from Rwanda. Ecohealth Conference, Madison Wisconsin 2006

Whittier CA, Cranfield MR, Stoskopf MK. Real time PCR detection of campylobacter in wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Proceedings of the 54th Annual Wildlife Disease Association Conference. Abstract. Winner, Wildlife Disease Association Student Poster Award. 2005.

Whittier CA, Nutter FB In the field with the Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project. Lecture given to the Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology (Vienna, Austria) and the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna Austria 2005.

Whittier CA, Nutter FB, Cranfield MR. Seroprevalence of infectious agents in free-living mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei spp.). Proceedings of the 54th Annual Wildlife Disease Association Conference. Abstract. 2005.

Whittier CA, Nutter FB, Cranfield MR. Experiences with Employee Health Programs in three different areas. International Primatology Society Meeting Entebbe 2006.

Whittier CA, Nutter FB, Lowenstine LJ, Cranfield MR. An outbreak of apparent poxvirus infection in two groups of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Proceedings of the 54th Annual Wildlife Disease Association Conference. Abstract. 2005.

Whittier CA, Nutter FB, Lukusa JP, Cranfield MR. Experiences with employee health programs in three different areas. International Journal of Primatology. Volume 27, supplement 1:125, 2006.

Whittier, Christopher. Seroprevalence of selected agents in wild and confiscated mountain gorillas, confiscated grauer’s gorillas and other primates in the Virunga Massif. IPS 2008

Zanet, Stefania. Role of domestic ruminants as possible reservoir of TB, BRC and Q-fever for mountain gorillas in the Parc National Des Volcans (PNV), Rwanda, Africa. EWDA 2011

Zanet, Stefania. Survey to livestock owners assesses the risk of interspecific transmission of pathogens to free-ranging mountain gorillas in Rwandan Parc National Des Volcans. EWDA 2011

POSTERS: JBN, CW, CW, FN

Parasitic Threats to Mountain Gorilla Health and Conservation
R. Mbabazi, I.B. Rwego, M. Robbins, N. Hauser, M. Cranfield, M. Gray, T.R. Gillespie

BOOKS AND BOOK CHAPTERS

Cranfield M, Hillsenroth R, Seal U. 2000. Morris Animal Foundation Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project Strategic Plan. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group Final Report.

Cranfield MR, Gaffikin L, Sleeman J, Rooney M. 2002. Conservation medicine as it applies to the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei). In: Aguirre, A. A., R. S. Ostfeld, C. A. House, G. M. Tabor and M. C. Pearl (eds.). Ecological health in practice. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 282-296.

Dranzoa, C and Nizeyi, J.B., 2010. Interpreting Uganda’s Heritage. Fountain Publishers, Box 488, Kampala, Uganda. ISBN 978-9970-637-06-5

Elizabeth J. Macfie, Elizabeth J. and Elizabeth A. Williamson. 2010. Best practice guidelines for wild great ape tourism IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG), 78 pp. Gland Switzerland, ISBM: 978-2-8317-1156-0

Foster JW. 1993. Health plan for the mountain gorillas of Rwanda. In: Fowler, ME (ed.). Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Current Veterinary Therapy 3. W.B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia Pp. 331-334

Gardner-Roberts D. 2009. Disease Management in Endangered Mammals. Ch. 11 In: Management of Disease in Wild Mammals, R. J. Delahay et al. (eds.) @ Springer.

Graczyk TK, and MR Cranfield. 2001. Coprophagy and intestinal parasites: implications to mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Recent Research Developments in Microbiology, 5, S. G. Pandalai (ed). Research Signpost, Trivandrum-695 008, India; 283-293. ISBN: 81-7736-055-8.

Graczyk TK. 2002. Zoonotic infections and animal conservation. In: Aguirre, A. A., R. S. Ostfeld, C. A. House, G. M. Tabor and M. C. Pearl (eds.). Ecological health in practice. Oxford University Press, New York. Pp. 220-228.

MGVP, Inc. writing group and WCS: 2007. Conservation Medicine for Gorilla Conservation. In: Conservation in the 21st Century: Gorillas as a case study. Editors; Mehlman P., Lilly A., Stoinski,T. Spriger, New York

Mudakikwa AB, Cranfield M, Sleeman JM, and Eilenberger U. 2001. Clinical medicine, preventive health monitoring and research on mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes region. In: Robbins MM, Sicotte P and Steward K (eds.) Mountain Gorillas: three decades of research at Karisoke. Cambridge University Press, Pp. 341-361.

Mudakikwa AB, Cranfield MR, Sleeman JM, Eilenberger U. 2001. Clinical Medicine, Preventive Health Monitoring and Research on Mountain Gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes Region. Conference on Conservation of Gorillas. Leipzig Germany. Cambridge University Press.

THESES

Richard Minnis, Chris Whittier

PhD

Nizeyi, John Bosco. Non-Invasive Monitoring of Adreno-Cortical Activity in Free-Ranging Mountain Gorilla of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Southwestern Uganda. Study proposal to be carried out leading to a thesis for fulfillment of requirements for award of Doctor of Philosophy of Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University

Masters of Science

Depierro, Christine M. An evaluation of the mountain gorilla veterinary project canine rabies vaccination campaign. This special project has been successfully completed and partially fulfills the requirements for the degree of Master of Public Health. Southern Connecticut State University New Haven, Connecticut December 2010

Interactions in Queen Elizabeth national park, Uganda, Makerere University. Muhangi, Denis. Pathological lesions of the gastro-intestinal tract in the free-ranging mountain gorilla. UCD 2009

Nakayima, Jesca. The helminth risks associated with livestock-wildlife

Namilimu, Solome. Influence of management activities on stress levels among captive gorillas in Kinigi (Rwanda), Makerere University Uganda

Ndriko Mayigane, Landry. Evaluation of the clinical response decision tree for respiratory diseases in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringeii beringeii) in the Virunga Massif for fulfillment of the requirements for the MSC in Public Health CDC Kigali, Rwanda

Rwego, Innocent. Prevalence of observed clinical signs in mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, Makerere University

Sibwomu, Bernard. Potential tuberculosis and brucellosis risks posed by livestock to mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in areas adjacent to Mgahinga Gorilla National park, Uganda Makerere University

Ssebide, J. Bernard. Daily clinical observations and health monitoring of habituated mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) of Uganda. Makerere University

Undergraduate Research Memoirs

Akunda, Bernard. Enhancing community wellbeing and values for mountain gorilla conservation through integration with a water development scheme: A case study of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park

Amanyire, Wilson. Constraints to milk production in Nteko and Rubuguri parishes in Nyabwishenya and Kirundo sub-counties respectively in Kisoro district

Arinteireho, Noel Medelley. Occurrence of giardia and cryptosporidium in mountain gorillas, humans and cattle in and around Mgahinga National Park, Uganda.

Asiimwe, Caroline. Antibiotic resistance of zoonotic microbes in the environment (water) in and around Bwindi Impenetrable Forest National Park. A special research project submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Biomedical Laboratory Technology of Makerere University 2009

Aye, Rachael. The prevalence of amoeba and balantidium in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) and humans in a shared habitat in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. A special project proposal submitted in partial fulfilment for the award of a Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine.

Baguma, Stephen R. A review of disease based research carried out in the Bwindi Mgahinga Conservation Area by Makerere University Veterinary Medicine students between 1997 and 2003. A special project report submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University. 2007.

Bahizi, Methode. Study on adaptability of the cows provided in one cow per poor family program (OCPPF) in four districts around Virunga Massif (Rubavu, Nyabihu, Musanze And Burera) for the fulfillment of a1 Veterinary Technician in Animal Health ISAE, Busogo

Basigirenda, Boaz. Assessment of the impact of community conservation on illegal activities in Murchson Falls National Protected Area

Begenda, Anne C. An assessment of mineral profiles in the selected feed plants eaten by mountain gorilla (gorilla gorilla beringei) and their feaces during the dry season in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park

Blasier, Megan. The Risk of measles and the efficacy of the measles vaccine in gorillas. Dr. Scholl Summer Fellow, Lincoln Park Zoo. 2001.

Epilo, Daniel. Investigation of the Seasonal Prevalence of Helminths and Cryptosporidium Parasites in Mountain Gorillas of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. A special project report submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements for award of Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University. October, 2001.

Guerrera W, Sleeman JM, Ssebide BJ, Pace LB, Travers YI, Reif JS. Medical Survey of the Local Human Population to Determine Possible Health Risks to the Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) of Bwindi Impenetrable Forest National Park, Uganda. AAV Student Manuscript Competition.

Imbusi, L. Phillip. Community –National park conflict management: A case study of Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya.

Kamuganga, S. Kagwisa. Evaluation of Uganda Wildlife Authority’s gorilla permit sales strategy.

Kateregga, Abdulhammed. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminthes and cryptosporidium in mountain gorillas of shongi and bitukura families and their habituating teams in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park.

Kennedy, Benjamin. Assessment of ecotourism potential outside protected areas: A case study of Kabarole district.

Kiwelu, Lina Estomihi. Status of community-based eco-tourism in Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania.

Knodell, Claire. Mountain gorilla tourism: panacea or Pandora’s box in Rwanda. International Studies Yearlong Senior Essay 2008-2009.

Knodell, Claire. The fight to save a species: Carl Akeley’s legacy in the mountain gorilla, 1900s to present. History of Science History of Medicine Yearlong Senior Essay. 2008-2009.

Kungu, Joseph. A preliminary survey of common diseases that are communicable between humans in and around Bwindi-Mgahinga Conservation Area and the mountain gorillas as well as the therapeutics used for their treatment.

Lule, Samuel. A Comparative Assessment of Cryptosporidium Oocyst Prevalence and Concentration in Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park and Cattle around the Park in Southwestern Uganda. A special project report submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements for award of Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University 1999.

Mahero, Wandanje Michael. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of enteric bacteria in mountain gorillas, domesticated ruminants and humans in and around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park.

Makanaga, Solomon. Epidemiology of Capilleria hepatica in Rodents in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. A special project report submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements for award of Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University, February 2003

Mbabazi, Rachel. A survey of the vaccination status of the tourists and staff of Ngamba Island and Bwindi Impenetrable National Park.

Morison, Kungu Joseph. A survey of diseases and parasites that are commonly communicable between humans in areas around Bwindi National Park and the mountain gorillas. A special project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine degree.

Morison, Kungu Joseph. A Survey of Gastro-Intestinal Parasites That Commonly Affect Golden Monkeys in Mgahinga Gorilla National Park. A special project proposal submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of a Bachelor Degree of Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University.

Muhangi, Denis. Prevalence of Microsporidium and Cryptosporidium in Ruminants and Microsporidium Species in Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. A special project report submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements for award of Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University. 2002-2003.

Muhangi, Denis. Prevalence of microsporidium and cryptosporidium species in mountain gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park.

Mwebe, Robert. BVM, 1998, A survey on cryptosporidium prevalence within the mountain gorilla population (Gorilla gorilla berengei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in South Western Uganda.

Nabambejja, Sharifah. Human risky behaviors that impact on the mountain gorillas health status in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park: A case study of Mukono Parish.

Nakayima, Jesca. The Helminth Risks Associated with Livestock-Wildlife Interactions in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda. A special project report submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements for award of Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University. May, 2003

Nazziwa, Jamirah. Identification of enteric faecal bacteria and the resistance patterns from semi-captive chimpanzees on Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary. A special research project submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Biomedical Laboratory Technology of Makerere University. 2008

Nziza, Julius. The Prevalence of Scabies in the Human Population and Sarcoptic Mange in Dogs Living around the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. A special project report submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements for award of Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University. 2002.

Ocaya, Anthony. Cross-sectional survey of gastro-intestinal helminths and cryptosporidium in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Kibale Forest National Park.

Ochanda, David. Evaluation of captive management of chimpanzees in Uganda: A case study of Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary and Uganda Wildlife Education Center.

Ojodria, Mali. Prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella Species Infections among People who Frequent Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) Habitat of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. A special project report submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements for award of Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University. 2000.

Okello, Okwir R. Prevalence and total species richness of haemoparasites in rodents and shrews at human-wildlife interface, a case study of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park.

Okuyo, Charles Bosco. A study of the common diseases infecting livestock in the areas around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (home to mountain gorillas) a special project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of a Bachelor’s Degree In Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University. 2006

Okuyo, Charles Bosco. The prevalence of amoeba and Balantidium in mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) and humans in a shared habitat in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. A special project proposal submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of a Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University. 2006.

Omoding, David Oluka. The Role of Rodents in Disease Transmission to the Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable and Mgahinga Gorilla National Parks. A special project report submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements for award of Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University. 2002 – 2003.

Rukundo, Ernest. Study of social economic impact of one cow per poor family program (OCPPFP) in four districts surrounding the Virunga Massif. For fulfillment of the requirements for the award of an Advanced Diploma a1 in Animal Production ISAE, Busogo.

Rwego, Innocent B. The Occurrence of Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter Infections in Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP) and Mgahinga National Park. A special project report submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements for award of Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University 1999.

Sebunya, Dennis. A study to investigate the Prevalence of Cryptosporidium in People Frequenting the Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) Habitat in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Southwestern Uganda. A special project report submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements for award of Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University. June, 2000.

Senhte, Celsus. Gastro-intestinal helminth of the domesticated helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) under different management systems in Arua District, Uganda

Seruyange, Brian. A survey of prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats surrounding Bwindi Impenetrable National Park and its risk to the gorillas.

Ssebide, Benard Jasper. The Prevalence of Brucellosis in Cattle and Humans in Areas Around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. A special project report submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements for award of Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University. June, 2001.

Tumukunde, Alex. Assessment of the impact of researchers on the behaviors of mountain gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park

Tumusime, Boaz. Species diversity and distribution of butterflies around Katwe-Kabatooro Town Council, Kasese District.

Uwizeye, Amimable. Service Charges for the health and Production of Production Animals. A special project report submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements for award of Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine of Universite Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar.

Wycliff, Sewagudde Samuel. Seasonal Changes in Selected Dietary Parameters of the Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. A special project report submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements for award of Bachelor’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine of Makerere University.